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13….Exploration Tools DEVELOPED by MANKIND,

This is only summarisd. In depth study of these items should be undertaken !!

WRITING.In whatever form. Maybe, simple ochre drawings on rocks, or  simple chisellings on rocks or  elaborate signs on baked clay, or elaborate writing with quill pen and ink, or computerised print outs. The Precursor!! TO ALL THE following INSTRUMENTS.

CHARTS/MAPS. These represented knowledge that many people could not attain. They allowed boats to cover long distances, well away from coats for Profit/Warfare/Survival. Usually secret. Up until the “Age of Discovery Started” and Portuguese Sailor Bartholomew Diaz sailed to the tip of South Africa, Christopher Columbus (who used a Quadrant)sailed to America, and Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition sailed around the World, mankind only sailed near coasts, using the NORTH STAR as a Latitude guide. For a long time the Mediterranean Sea was the largest navigable stretch of water. It was Sailed by Ancient Greeks  and others.

COMPASS Magnetic North (this changes) was discovered by the Chinese in about 206 BC, and later used for navigation over Land in 11th century.  Marco Polo may have been privy to, or even used an instrument.

SEXTANT , as Navigation required better and better instruments.This went from using “thumb and little finger, with middle fingers closed, along the arm”, to current days Sextant with 2 reflecting mirrors. Innumerable “mathematical tables ext.”

TELESCOPE.Hans Lippeshey was a German/Dutch spectacle maker. He was probably the inventor of the Telescope. He did file a “Patent” in 1608 that was not recognized in his lifetime. Probably because “other spectacle makers” claimed “ownership” of the idea. He Died in 1619 .

TELESCOPE.cont.Galileo Galilei was an Italian Astronomer-Physicist-Engineer-Philosopher and Mathematician who IMPROVED the TELESCOPE, and therefore knowledge of Our Solar System and who died in 1642.

MARINE CLOCK (chronometer) John Harrison. An English clock maker. Allowed the Crews of ships to refer to the Time at Greenwich when calculating LONGITUDE. Died in 1776

The HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. Launched into Low Earth Orbit on 24 April 1990. Named after the prominent cosmologist Edwin Hubble. It has changed forever our understanding of deep space.

G.P.S. If reception is good!

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