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24. Getting Around OUR COUNTRY in the Early Days Shank's Pony-Bullock-Camels-Stage Coach-Car-Motorcycle



And Its effect on Australia Was tremendous!

later came Motorised Bikes—and —Cars!

Until cycling came along, IF anyone wanted to GO ANYWHERE, you were either rich enough to Own a horse, possibly OWN a carriage, or WALK!

Starting with the German designed Velocipede (1817), technology ( people’s creativeness} got better and better..Of course money was still a powerful influence BUT…1854 Jan 30 First "Cobb and Co coach left Melbourne for Bendigo" and.Karl Benz in 1886 was granted a patent for a petrol driven car.

According to “Mulga Bill”,by Banjo Patterson, maybe NOT.

What a selection?

A Garden party at the Governors Abode.



Ready to ride to the next Shearing Station.




Good Advertisements!!.

The DECLINE— Current Day Popularity.

With the development of Trains, trams, motor bikes and car’s the Push Bike in Australia, as a method of mass population use seemed to go into a decline.

However, Tour de “wherever” in Europe was extremely popular, and this relegated the use of Push Bikes to “sport”


The names Armstrong and Cadell Evans are well known to Australians now. The many “Cycle Shops” now selling Bikes, indicates the modern use of a Push Bike. Also the advent of “skate boards” has made short journeys very possible and quick.



Bullock teams were first used in Sydney in 1795, when they were used for hauling building materials.

Explorers Hume and Hovell used them in 1824, and Charles Sturt in 1828 to 1829.

Bullock were cheaper to purchase than Horses

Poems about Bullock Teams were wrtiten Henry Kendall, C.J.Dennis and Henry Lawson.

Draft Horses began to replace Bullcok Teams from 1830 onwards.


Australia, home to the world's largest Camel Herd.

Camels were first imported into Australia, for the Burke and Wills expedition. later Camels were imported from Arabia, India and Afghanistan, for Transport and Heavy work in the outback.

When the Internal Combustion was developed Camels were bo longer needed.

The wild Camels have flourished in the Outback and are having a huge impact on our wilderness. We sell selected ones to Arabian Countries, and occaaionally her and shoot them to cull them.

Burke and Wills "Dig Tree"

A Camel Train



For 70 years from 1850 to 1920's the Australian population was served by the American owned COBB and CO Stage Coach Line. Coac were the principle means of Transport in the Colonies of QLD, NSW, and VIC. Settlers moving in land, Immigants, and Gold Miners etc.

It was eventually driven out of business by The TRAIN system.



The 3 major rivers in Australia—the DARLING—the MURRUMBIDGEE—the MURRAY, cover a large area and their use greatly assisted development of early Australia. Not only rudimentary irrigation, but also a method of moving people-animals-and grain--wool.

The development and use of River Steamers also allowed a quicker way to the overseas Ports Via Adelaide and not Sydney.

Two persons were mainly responsible for the initial development of the Steamer Trade. They were William  Randell, who was born in England in 1824, and was determined to be the first man to put a steam boat on the river. In fact he built the First Steamer, the other person was Francis Cadell.

Sturt’s voyage of discovery down the Murrumbidgee and the Murray, men had believed that the rivers would one day be important channels of communication.

Captain Cadell’s offer to assist the Burke and Wills expedition on their way to Northern Australia by delivering ALL people-stores—and equipment up to Menindee, may well have changed the resultant outcome of the Expedition.



A Steam Powered Car was produced and by 1801 theses vehicles were on roads.

Car development was carried out in earnest in Germany by Karl Benz, and he [atented his cars in May 1866. From 1905 to 1914 many items of taodays Car equipment were designed and used. They included electronic ignition, independent suspention, safety glass etc.



The concept of a "motor cycle" seems to have occured to numerous inventors in Europe around the same time.

The First steam powered motorcycle or velocipeded, can be traced to 1867. In 1868, an American, developed a twin cyclinder velocipeded with a Coal Fired Boiler, between the wheels. He died whilst demonstrating his machine.

The very first commercial design for a tree wheel design, was built in England in 1884 withy a radiator over the rear driving wheel. No braking system was fitted.

A Petrol driven motor bike was designed in 1885. It relied upon 2 outrigger wheels for stability.




In 1885, Karl Benz, designed and Built the First Truck in history, using an Internal Combustion Engine. Trucks of that era used 2 cylinder engines. Since then DEMAND for specialized Trucks saw the industry grow remarkably.



A steam locomotive is like a tea kettle on wheels. to make tea or hot chocolate, you have to put water into a kettle and heat it on a stove. The stove acts like the fire box on a locomotive, and the tea kettle acts like its boiler.

The water itself in the tea kettle is not enough to make the locomotive move. It is the pressure that results from the water being boiled that really does the work. When water boils in a tea kettle, it strts to change from a lqiuid to a gas, but one that is under pressure. It wants to get out, to brek free of the kettle. usually, it lets you know that it is ready by  whistling an then escaping out the spout into the air. What is left is a hot-very hot, boiling water for your tea or hot chocolate.

if we could connect that boiling tea kettle to a cylinder, a piston and a set of drive wheels, we could harness that steam to make the wheels move. In this way, we will have created  working steam locomotive.

Remember, it is the pressure of steam that creates the power that we need to operate the locomotive. Without it we are going nowhere!

Stephenson's Patent Locomotive Engine

First Railways in Each State and Territory

History of Rail Images

Source: https://infrastructure.gov.au/rail/trains/history.aspx


New South Wales: In 1849, the Sydney Railway Company started building the first railway track in New South Wales between Sydney and Parramatta—a distance of 22 km. The project ran into financial difficulty and was taken over by the New South Wales colonial government. The line opened on 26 September 1855.

Victoria: The first railway line in Australia opened between Melbourne's Flinders Street Station and Port Melbourne, then called Sandridge, on 12 September 1854. Operated originally as a 1600 mm gauge, it has since been converted to a 1435 mm gauge electric light railway feeding the Melbourne tram system.History of Rail Images

Queensland: The first railway in Queensland ran from Ipswich inland to Grandchester using the narrow 1067 mm gauge. The system was extended further to the Darling Downs before being connected with Brisbane, the capital, in 1875.

South Australia: While South Australia had a horse-drawn railway operating at the mouth of the Murray River in 1854, the first line carrying steam powered trains opened on 21 April 1856 between Adelaide and Port Adelaide. It was built by the colonial government to the then Australian ‘standard’ gauge of 1600 mm.

Western Australia: Commencing in 1871, a private timber railway from Lockville to Yoganup, south of Perth, was the first railway to operate in Western Australia. The first Government railway opened in 1879 between Geraldton and Northampton. In the 19th century the network in south-western Western Australia was built as 1067 mm gauge lines, but in the 20th century the eastern states were connected to Perth and Esperance with standard (1435 mm) gauge lines.

Tasmania: A railway line 72 km long opened between the Northern Tasmanian towns of Launceston and Deloraine in 1868. Built to the 1600 mm gauge, the operator was the Launceston and Western Railway Company. Subsequently, the Tasmanian Government passed an act of Parliament incorporating the Tasmanian Mainline Railway Company. This company built the mainline between Launceston and Hobart, the State capital.

History of Rail ImagesNorthern Territory: The completion of the Alice Springs to Darwin standard gauge rail link in January 2004 resulted in a national rail network linking all mainland State and Territory capital cities. A railway between Darwin and Pine Creek (253 km) became operational on 1 October 1889. The Australian Government took control of the Pine Creek Railway from 1 January 1911. It operated until 1 July 1918, when the line became part of the Commonwealth Railways. The former North Australia Railway linked Darwin with Birdum—a distance of 511 km—by 1929. It was never profitable and has been closed for many years.

Australian Capital Territory: A 10 km standard gauge branch line opened between Queanbeyan, NSW, and Canberra, the Australian capital, in 1914. Passenger operations commenced in 1923.



Australian Tram Network

Horse Pulled Tram-Steam Driven-Cable Pulled-Electric Driven

Underground cable pulled Tram (Melbourne)

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trams_in_Australia#Timeline

Australian Capital Territory

A light rail system serving Australia's national capital, Canberra, is under construction. The initial line will link the northern suburb of Gungahlin to the city centre (Civic). An extension to the southern suburb of Woden has been announced.

New South Wales

Broken Hill

A steam tramway service operated in Broken Hill from 1902 until its closure in December 1926.


Opening of the Maitland Tramway in 1909

A steam tram line connected East and West Maitland between 1909 and 1926. The line ran from Victoria Street station in East Maitland along High Street, West Maitland crossing the 'Long Bridge' and terminated in the suburb of Campbells Hill. There was single track branch from High Street, West Maitland running along Church Street to West Maitland station. This branch line closed in 1915.

There were proposals to extend the line westwards from Campbells Hill to Rutherford but these never eventuated. There were proposals to electrify the service in 1921 but instead it was decided to withdraw the service. The tramway closed on 31 December 1926.


A steam tram system operated in Newcastle, New South Wales from 1887, with a branch to West Wallsend. It was electrified in 1923-26. The last line closed in 1950.

The construction of a modern system was announced in 2014. The line will take over part of the Newcastle railway line.


Sydney once had quite an extensive tram system, having been in place since 1879, with a short-lived earlier line opened between 1861 and 1866. The system was hugely popular by the 20th century, with an average of more than one tram journey per day made by every man and woman and child in the city. Patronage peaked at over 400 million people per annum in 1945. The use of trams in Sydney declined in the 1950s and the system was closed entirely in 1961, replaced by buses. It had a maximum street mileage of 181 miles (291 km) in 1923.

In 1997, more than 30 years after trams disappeared from Sydney streets, they were reintroduced in the form of a small light rail system. A single line was opened between Central station and Pyrmont, mostly utilising a former goods railway, which was extended along the remaining section of disused railway to Lilyfield in the Inner Western Suburbs in 2000. Following a further cut back to the city's freight rail network, a south-western extension to Dulwich Hill opened in 2014. A second line through the CBD and to the south-eastern suburbs is now under construction. It will have two branches at the suburban end of the line, to Randwick and Kingsford.

Two lines have been announced in Western Sydney. Both lines feature a shared core through Parramatta before one line travels east to Strathfield and the other north-east to Carlingford.



The Brisbane Tram System was operational from 1885 to 1969.

Brisbane's tram system ran on standard gauge track. The electric system was originally energised to 500 volts, this was subsequently increased to 600 volts.

Most trams operated with a two-person crew - a driver (or motorman) and a conductor, who moved about the tram collecting fares and issuing tickets. The exceptions to this arrangement were on the Gardens line (Lower Edward Street) where the short duration of the trip meant it was more effective for passengers to simply drop their fare into a fare box as they entered the tram; and the "one man cars" which operated in the early 1930s.

The network reached its maximum extent of 109 kilometres in 1952. The total track length was 199 kilometres, owing to many routes ending in single, rather than double, track. Single track segments of the track were protected by signalling which operated off the trolley wire. By 1959, more than 140 kilometres of track were laid in concrete, a method of track construction pioneered in Brisbane.

The last track opened was in O'Keefe Street Woolloongabba, in May 1961. However, this track was not used in normal passenger service and was merely used to reduce dead running from Logan Road back to Ipswich Road Depot.

The peak year for patronage was 1944-45, with almost 160 million passenger journeys recorded.

Gold Coast

The first modern light rail system in Queensland opened on the Gold Coast in 2014. Called G:link, it runs between Gold Coast University Hospital and Broadbeach via Southport and Surfers Paradise. The route forms a public transport spine on the Coast and connects with bus services along the route. A northern extension, from the current terminus at Gold Coast University Hospital to Helensvale railway station, was announced in October 2015. The extension is expected to open before the 2018 Commonwealth Games.


Rockhampton operated steam trams from 1909 to 1939. There is a Steam Tram Museum at Archer Park Station, with a toastrack style French Purrey steam tram operating for several hours each Sunday.

South Australia


Adelaide has a single tram line connecting the inner suburb of Hindmasrh, through the Adelaide city centre and on to the seaside suburb of Glenelg, and currently uses two classes of electric trams built in 2006. In 2007 the line was extended through the CBD and in 2010 was extended again to Hindmarsh. A one-kilometre branch along the eastern section of North Terrace was announced in July 2016.

Adelaide operated with a horse tram network from 1878 to 1909, an electric tram network till 1958 and has primarily relied on buses for public transport since. Electric trams and trolleybuses were the main public transport from the opening of the electric tram network to its closing and are enjoying a resurgence with the expansion of the remaining line and the first new tram purchases for over 50 years.

Victor Harbor

The Victor Harbor Horse Drawn Tram line from Victor Harbor to Granite Island in South Australia which had closed in 1931 re-opened in 1985 using replicas of the original cars as a tourist attraction.



Hobart had a municipal tram system from 1893 to 1960 with a network of 8 routes throughout the city, the tram network was scaled down and by 1960 was virtually defunct and replaced by a short lived trolleybus system until 1968. Hobart has investigated restoring the tram network, as it is part of its heritage, being one of the first Australian cities to implement a tram system but no such development has occurred. Recent investigation and transport studies have led to plans to instigate a Light Rail system along the existing South Line.


Launceston had a municipal tram system from 1911 to 1952 with 29 trams.

The Launceston Tramway Museum Society runs a tramway museum in the Inveresk Precinct. The long term plan is to have a line from the city centre to the museum and if successful to expand further along the original network.



Ballarat once operated an extensive tramway network which began in 1887 with horse-drawn trams and electrified in 1905. The system was closed in September 1971 and replaced by buses. The Ballarat Tramway Museum operates a small section of the original track as a tourist and museum tramway. There have been several proposals put to the City of Ballarat to return trams to the inner suburbs and extend the line to Ballarat railway station however these plans have been put on hold indefinitely.


Bendigo in regional Victoria has retained sections of its once extensive network. The famous heritage "talking tram" and "cafe tram" run as tourist attractions in conjunction with a tramway museum.

A public transport trial of trams began in 2009 and in 2010 full funding was committed to restore the Bendigo network for public transport with the development of a raised platform tram stop and yearly ticket costing just A$30 with future extensions to the network in the planning stages.


Geelong maintained an electric tram service from 1912 until 1956.
The network included 4 main routes:

  • North Geelong - Belmont
  • Newtown - Eastern Park
  • West Geelong - East Geelong
  • Chilwell - Eastern Beach


Melbourne, the most populous city in and capital of Victoria, is home to the largest tram network in the world, and its trams have become part of the city's culture and identity due to their long history. Currently around 500 trams are in service in the city.

The system uses a combination of newer low-floor trams (the E-class, C-class (Citadis) and D-class (Combino)), middle-aged, high-floor trams (the A-class, B-class and Z-class) and the older W-class trams. The latter remain in service as a popular tourist attraction, used on the free City Circle Tram route in the city centre, along with operating the world's first restaurant tram. The oldest in-service W-class tram dates from 1939.


Tram in Portland, powered by a small combustion engine, en route from Wade Street to the Henty Park depot.

A replica tourist route in Portland was created using old vintage Melbourne cable trams. The single line route runs along the beach and harbourfront to the historic lighthouse on the hill. The popular tourist route ran into financial trouble in 2005.


A steam tram operated in Sorrento between 1889 and 1921 from near the Front Beach pier to the Back Beach. It connected with steamers from Melbourne and Queenscliff providing a tourist and, to a lesser extent, local service across the peninsula.

Western Australia

Tram lines and companies operated in several towns of Western Australia. These were sometimes public services, while others were primarily for industries like mining or timber. Trams operated in the cities and towns of Perth, Fremantle, Kalgoorlie and Leonora. The early northern port of Cossack was linked by tram with the town of Roebourne during the gold boom of the 1890s. The biggest of these networks was centred upon the growing state capital, Perth.


Between 1905 and 1952, Fremantle had a small but comprehensive tramway network of its own. The Fremantle network was owned and operated by a consortium of local municipalities, and was never linked into the Perth network. Throughout its existence, the Fremantle network covered both the Fremantle municipality and the adjacent municipality of East Fremantle. Its tram lines also extended for part of that period into North Fremantle and Melville.

The Perth Electric Tramway Society Inc, commissioned former Fremantle tram #29 in 1992 at Whiteman Park, and it has provided continuous service on (usually) the 4th Sunday of each month.


Between 1902 and 1952, Kalgoorlie operated a 24 kilometre network.


Trams ran in Perth from the late nineteenth century. There is believed to have been at least one horse car line, but it probably did not carry passengers. The first electric trams ran in 1899 between East Perth and West Perth along Hay Street. The electric tram network expanded as far west as Claremont, as far north as Osborne Park, and across the Swan River causeway to Victoria Park, Como and Welshpool. The government took over the running of trams in 1914. The last tram was built in 1934; No 130. The trams ceased running on 19 July 1958.

Since the start of 2007, there have been four proposals for the reintroduction of trams to the Perth metropolitan area, in the form of light rail. A line running from Mirrabooka to the Perth central business district (provisionally known as the Metro Area Express) was officially announced in September 2012 but was cancelled in 2016.

At Whiteman Park 22 km north of Perth, there is an operating heritage tram system run by the Perth Electric Tramway Society, with 4 km of track. The trams operating on this system includes former Perth tram #66, commissioned on 9 October 2011. Currently, proposals for the restoration of subsequent Perth trams are being prepared for submission to the membership of the Society.


Proposed New Trams


There is currently a detailed analysis and study into proposals of the introduction of a light rail service in Hobart's northern suburbs along with political backing from all 3 major parties.



Also known as an omnibus-motor bus-auto bus, is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.

Single decker, or joined to another articulated single bed body, or a double decker.

Horse drawn Buses, were used from the 1820's followed by Steam Bus in the 1830's and Electric Trolley Buses in 1882. The first internal combustion engine bus was used in 1882.


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